Guide to AVR ISP Circuits
This guide covers Serial Programming, which is commonly called ISP, not JTAG programming
which uses a different connector and algorithm. JTAG interface is used for debugging on
larger AVR devices (40-pin plus) and can be used for programming as well. Most Kanda AVR
programmers also support JTAG. Please see below for AVR JTAG interface.
In System Programmers have different amounts of "drive" depending on their price and design,
so for maximum flexibility in choosing a programmer, err on the side of caution with sizes unless
you have compelling reasons for fitting large capacitors and low value resistors.
The AVR ISP connector can be either 6 or 10-way, but this makes no difference to your
circuit layout. 10-way connectors have more Ground lines to improve noise immunity during
Simple AVR ISP Circuit
The simplest AVR ISP circuit is shown here, with some notes. Ground and VCC must be connected to
programmer, either to power programmer, allow programmer to power target or to provide a reference
voltage for lower voltage circuits.
- Most AVR microcontrollers use MOSI, MISO and SCK SPI pins for programming, but some
such as ATmega128 use SPI SCK but use UART TX and RX pins instead for MISO and MOSI. This setup
causes more problems than anything else so beware.
- The capacitor connected between Reset and Ground, and the resistor from Reset to Vcc
should be fitted to give a slight delay to allow AVR to power up properly. These values
are not critical, but if they are too large then the ISP programmer will need to be slowed down.
- The programming lines (SCK, MISO and MOSI) are best left just for programming, but if these pins
must be used by the application, then resistors should be used to isolate the application
circuitry, typically 4K7. This is especially important if TXD/RXD are used for programming,
as UART chips tend to hold the lines.
This should be fine for SPI or UART use or where pins are inputs but if you have to use these
lines for higher current, then a multiplexer circuit may be needed, see STK200 schematics.
- Capacitors on the programming lines can cause problems, especially on SCK. If they have to be fitted,
then they should be below 10nF and fitted as close as possible to AVR microcontroller pins.
Some low cost programmers will have problems with even a 10nF capacitor on SCK or MOSI, so smaller
Atmel AVR ISP Reset Circuit
Atmel recommend that a diode is fitted between Reset and Vcc as shown here, but we have
not found it necessary in practice. Note their recommended resistor and capacitor values are
slightly different, but these values are not critical. A capacitor between 10nF and 100nF
and a resistor between 4K7 and 10K will be fine.
Standard ISP Header Layouts
Most engineers use either a 10-way ISP Header or a 6-way ISP header on their PCB. Both formats
are 0.1" (2.54mm) dual-in-line pin headers with a keyway for orientation. 1.27mm (0.05") and 2.0mm pitch
are sometimes used to save PCB space. Most programmers use
10-way header but Atmel have swapped to 6-way. Adapters are available to swap from 10-way
programmer leads to 6-way headers.
JTAG interface is also 0.1" (2.54mm) pin header. JTAGEN fuse must be set for JTAG interface to work.
The JTAG lines can be used for other JTAG devices without problems but if JTAG pins are used
as general I/O, then they should be fitted with isolating resistors just like ISP lines. Kanda
programmers use an adapter to swap to standard Atmel JTAG interface shown - target layout view.
Kanda supply adapters to convert to 2.0mm and 1.27mm (0.05 inch) 10-way headers for both ISP and JTAG.
Micromatch and flying lead adapters are also available and Kanda can make any custom adapter you might need, please
AVR Programmer Adapters
10-way target layout
6-way target layout
10-way JTAG layout
Example Good and Bad Circuits
The pull-up resistor R1 is too strong, minimum value 1K
The pull-up resistor R1 is at least 1K
A resistor, R1, in series will not affect ISP Programming
The series resistor R2 is ok with pull-up R1 on ISP side
The series resistor R2 with pull-up resistor R1 on AVR side will affect ISP operation
The application circuit is using a programming pin to read the output of U2. This
will hold the state of the line, preventing programming.
The application circuit is still using pin as an input to read output of U2,
but decoupling resistor R1 allows ISP to control the programming line.
Some programmers will need more than 1K shown, 2K2 or 4K7 will allow
all programmers to work.
Example good and bad AVRISP circuits using Reset IC
These diagrams show some common ISP circuits using Reset ICs.
The commomly used MAX809 Brown-out IC has a Push-Pull output. This will hold RESET line high.
This time resistor R1 prevents MAX809 holding Reset
The MAX803 can be used without a decoupling resistor because it has OPEN DRAIN output
AVR ISP Programmers